1. Hi Rakesh,

      The accounting process involves recording, interpreting, classifying, analyzing, reporting and summarizing financial data. Bookkeeping is the process of recording financial transactions. Recording financial transactions is the first part of and the foundation of the accounting process.

  1. Hello Mr. Atul, I have one small doubt in nominal account. Why expenses is to be debited in nominal account, may I know the reason?

    1. Simply I can say is because it is the Golden rules of account. But it is recorded in debit side because the balances on the right side of an account are credit balances. Since expenses cause a decrease to the owner’s equity credit balance, a debit entry is required. However, at the time that the expense is recorded, the amount is entered as a debit in an expense account.

  2. What if ABC Ltd. has not paid the salary of June month, then what account will be debited and what account will be credited.

    1. Unpaid salaries are salary liabilities (salary outstanding) that you have incurred but have not paid. You must record all accrued salaries, employment taxes and related compensation expenses in the same period in which they are incurred. Here I am presenting 2 cases, one salary is unpaid and another is outstanding salary paid.

      1. Salary Outstanding

      Acc. | Dr. | Cr.
      Salary A/c… Dr.
      To Salary Outstanding A/c
      (Being salary unpaid or due)

      2. Outstanding Salary Paid

      Acc. | Dr. | Cr.
      Salary Outstanding A/c… Dr
      To Bank/Cash A/c
      (Being due salary cleared)

      I hope this will be helpful to you.

  3. Sir, Which transaction are recorded in debit side in journal, but these transaction are changed in credit side in ledger. Why it is change?

    1. Hello Rakesh, as I understand your question is about change of debit side entries of journal to credit side entries or vice-versa when we are adding entries from journal to ledger. account. It is recorded in opposite direction because your credit is someones debit and someones credit is your debit. It changes because the account has been changed. Ledger is always made for specific account, goods and services and it is more detailed in nature.

    1. Hello Abhinov, thanks for asking a nice question. So Public account is account where you deal with business systems and where strong analytical is required. Whereas in Private account you mostly deal in business process, and need to know industry standards.

    1. A bill is said to dishonoured when a drawee fails to make the payment on the date of the maturity. In this case, liability of the acceptor is restored. Thus, the entries made on the receipt of the bill as reversed. Let’s say if ABC received bill of exchange accepted by XYZ, which dishonoured. Then entries of dishonour will be as,

      Acc. | Dr. | Cr.
      XYZ A/c Dr.
      To Bills Receivables A/c
      (Being a bill dishonoured )

      I hope this will be helpful to you.

  4. Hi Atul, one of my friend got question when she attend for an interview.
    Interviewer question: why we need to prepare trading account when we are preparing P&L A/c. and Balance Sheet.

    1. Hi Prudhavi, it’s a basic thing to know. When we create a final account which is Profit and Loss account and Balance sheet we need to calculate first gross profit and loss; on the basis of which final accounts are created. Trading Account is the first stage in the process of preparing final accounts. Trading account shows the gross profit or gross loss during an accounting year. Thus, we need to prepare trading account first when we are preparing Profit and Loss account and Balance sheet.

      1. First we need to find out the profit from core operating activities, because that is necessary to our core activities as they are profitable or not. Then secondary things will be considered.

    1. Hi Shivu, the cash eaten by rat doesn’t comes under abnormal loss and insurance claims. The loss on theft of cash and any other assets may be simply be expensed to the income statement net of any insurance claim received or receivable. Following accounting entries would therefore be required:

      Acc. | Dr. | Cr.
      Loss on asset theft (balancing amount) A/c Dr.
      Accumulated Depreciation A/c Dr. (If it is required)
      To Asset (carrying amount) A/c.

      Incase if it was assets which has a claim by insurance company then there would be 2 more entries thus I am making a case here to explain how all entries will go. In this case, when insurance company is ready to give some percentages of claim.

      Acc. | Dr. | Cr.
      Loss due to Accident A/c Dr.
      Insurance Claim A/c Dr.
      To Trading A/c Cr.
      (Being cash eaten by rat and insurance claim received)

      Entry for transferring loss to Profit & Loss A/c.

      Acc. | Dr. | Cr.
      Profit & Loss A/c Dr.
      To Loss due to Accident A/c
      (Being entry recorded for transferring loss to Profit & Loss A/c)

    2. Loss by rats (or by any cause like loss by flood, loss by theft, loss by embezzlement, etc.) a/c …… Dr.
      Cash a/c …… Cr.

  5. Hi,

    I have a query regarding Accounts. Many times I have rejected in final round of interview only because of accounts knowledge. In my current organization or previous organization I never used these accounting thing, what I have learnt in my school and college life. Mostly I have experience of accounts receivable.

    So could you please tell me what should I have brush up before going to an interview. Because mostly every interviewer ask golden rule of accounts that I know. Anything you can suggest or any entries which they are surely ask for accounts receivable process.

    1. Hi Ravi, Glad to know that you are talking about practical uses of this. Basically when we are in colleges we tough predefined journal entries and accounting methods, but once we enter in the practical world nothing other than basic rules are followed. Thus, I would like suggest that make habit of learning current cases going on everywhere.

      Nowadays no one make journal entries on books but the same things are done with accounting software (My CA uses “QuickBook” for accounts and invoices; he also follows the real cases of multinational companies to make himself updated). So it’s better to learn more on real life transactions other than what we have studied yet.

  6. Hi Atul, first of all thanks for sharing this amazing accountancy rules with us. I have a question that loan from bank is a personal a/c or nominal a/c or real a/c?

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